Environment is a very powerful way to pass data from parent down to children.

It is like a global singleton.

Don’t cringe, because that’s the direction SwiftUI is taking. So embrace it.

1. Custom Environment

The steps involve creating a key, injecting into EnvironmentValues, and then passing it (from parent to children).

/// 1. Declare a key with the type, and a default
struct MyEnvironmentKey: EnvironmentKey {
    static var defaultValue: CGFloat { 0 }

/// 2. Provide extension to EnvironmentValues
extension EnvironmentValues {
    var foo: CGFloat {
        get { self[MyEnvironmentKey.self] }
        set { self[MyEnvironmentKey.self] = newValue }

/// 3. Pass to children using `environment`
  .environment(\.foo, 1.23)

/// 4. Children declare and use
@Environment(\.foo) var foo

NOTE: If no one sets the environment, the defaultValue will be used. Therefore, some value will always be present. This is different from EnvironmentObject.

2. Custom EnvironmentObject

The difference is that EnvironmentObject does NOT require a key.

Because it simply uses the type as the “key”.

You start by creating your custom type, which has to implement ObservableObject. Yup, that’s the same view model you’ll have.

/// 1. Declare the custom type
class MyModel: ObservableObject {
    @Published var foo: String = "a"

struct ChildView: View {

    /// 2. Use `@EnvironmentObject` with the custom type
    @EnvironmentObject var model: MyModel

    var body: some View {

/// 3. Parent to pass down the model
struct ParentView: View {
    @ObservedObject var model = MyModel()

    var body: some View { = "b" // eg. Parent could update it
        return VStack {

NOTE: You must create your EnvironmentObject and set it from somewhere. If it is never set and the child view uses it, the app will crash.

PITFALL: Using in modal sheet

Environment is passed down from a parent to all it’s descendant.

Typically you pass on the root view.

However, if you use a sheet, it will be a sibling to the root (NOT a descendant). So you have to set the environment in the sheet.

.sheet(isPresented: $presentDetailsView) {

PITFALL: Xcode preview crashed

Cannot preview in this file - may have crashed

This is because you didn’t pass an environment for the preview. Simply pass it in your PreviewProvider.




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